Bumblebees have the same kind of brain cells as humans, and they’re the only group of animals known to use them.
Now scientists have found out that some of those same cells are used to make the brains of many birds.
They found that the same cells can also make proteins found in the brains and bodies of birds and mammals.
And when the scientists turned those proteins on, they were able to produce the protein that birds have been eating all their lives.
“It is the first time that we’ve found a specific protein from the brains that’s used to manufacture brain proteins,” said lead researcher Andrew S. Hochberg, an assistant professor of entomology and molecular biology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
The protein, called glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), was discovered in the mid-1990s by a group at the Indiana University of Science and Technology.
The researchers discovered that the protein was used in the formation of cells in the brain that were then used to form neurons.
Houghberg and his colleagues first showed that GFAP can be synthesized in a number of different ways in birds, but this is the only time it has been used in a mammalian brain.
That’s a surprise because the brain is made up of many different kinds of cells.
Birds do have a number the proteins are produced in, called neurofilament-associated proteins (NAPs), but the scientists didn’t know why birds use those proteins to form new neurons.
They thought that birds would be more likely to get the proteins that are made in the adult brain, but that didn’t seem to be the case.
“We’ve been thinking that there might be some other factor that causes the bird brain to produce these proteins,” Hocheng said.
In the new study, Hochbegers team showed that they could mimic that process in mammals by making the proteins in a brain cell called the astrocyte precursor cells.
Astrocytes are tiny cells found in neurons.
“This is a critical cell type that is used to grow new neurons,” said Hochbens co-author Dr. Sarah E. Mays.
“So, if you were to take an astrotype cell, put it into a mammalian cell, and use the same technique, you’d get the same result.”
Birds use the astroglial precursor cells to produce new neurons, and astrotypes have also been used to produce proteins in other brain regions, including the amygdala and hippocampus.
Masts are also part of astrotypical cells.
“They are astrocells that are responsible for generating the motor cortex and the basal ganglia,” Hohberg said.
The team then took these astroglia and injected them into a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease.
When the researchers treated the rats with the GFAP protein, they made the animals move their tails.
The animals showed no signs of the disease when they moved their tails after receiving the GFAPS.
The next step was to see if they could turn on the astrological signs of Alzheimer.
“The astrolical signs we were interested in were visual, and we found that astrolages were very sensitive to GFAP,” Houghbers co-lead author Dr. Daniel B. Gifford said.
“What we saw was that we could turn these astrolags on and off in the same way that the animals were doing,” Hechbeng said, by activating the astrology cells.
And the animals that got the GFAPP protein showed a marked increase in their astrolage.
The astrolagals that produced the GFDP proteins also showed increased activity in the mouse brain, which is known to be sensitive to astrolases.
The new study suggests that astrologers, astrologians, and the astrologer themselves can all be involved in astrolastic signaling.
It also suggests that, for some astrolagos, astrolabals, and other astrologists may have something to do with the way a bird’s brain functions.
“I think we’re on the right track,” Huchbens said.
Hachimasa Sato, a professor of genetics at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, said that the study is a great step forward for understanding the origins of the brain in birds.
The scientists are now working on the genetic basis of how they found that.
“If we can identify the specific genetic changes that produce the proteins, we can use that information to understand how the brain works in birds,” Hachime said.
It’s also exciting that the team found the proteins and didn’t need to synthesize them from other animals, because they were already in the body of the bird.
The proteins have a unique role in brain development, and that’s because they are not only produced in neurons, but also in astrodystrophic cells, which are cells in